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R in a Nutshell by Joseph Adler

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Denn ein Balkendiagramm ist ein um 90° gedrehtes Säulendiagramm, d. h. dass anstatt der vertikalen Säulen horizontale Balken zu sehen sind. Besonders gut sind Balkendiagramme für die Darstellung von Rangfolgen geeignet. Das Balkendiagramm ist einer der häufigsten Diagrammtypen. Es ist dem Säulendiagramm sehr ähnlich, stellt die Datenreihen allerdings durch waagerecht liegende Balken dar.

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Deswegen eignen sich Säulen nicht für jede Anwendung. Abhängig vom Wert kann die Säule nach oben oder nach unten wachsen.

Gestapelte Säulendiagramme, auch Stapeldiagramme genannt, stellen relative oder absolute Häufigkeiten von mindestens zwei Datenreihen in einer Rechtecksäule dar. Die jeweiligen Häufigkeiten werden demnach als Flächen dargestellt. Gesamtwerte werden auf diese Weise besser vergleichbar.

Jedoch ist das Stapeldiagramm weniger gut geeignet, um Veränderungen der abgebildeten Anteile abzulesen. Das gruppierte Säulendiagramm bildet die Werte mehrerer Kategorien nebeneinander ab. Die verschiedenen Variablen sind somit direkt miteinander vergleichbar.

Die aggregierten Daten können in diesem Diagrammtyp jedoch schwer abgelesen und verglichen werden. In einem überlappenden Säulendiagramm werden die Säulen eines jeweiligen Merkmals überlappt dargestellt. Diese Darstellungsvariante wird häufig für mehrere Zeitreihen verwendet.

Diesbezüglich findet sich die neueste Zeitreihe im Vordergrund und dementsprechend sind ältere Zeitreihen teilweise verdeckt. Das Balkendiagramm ist dem Säulendiagramm sehr ähnlich. Der einzige Unterschied besteht in der Art der Visualisierung. As the technical-materialist position had attained the status of dogma, Riegl stated that "the most pressing problem that confronts historians of the decorative arts today is to reintegrate the historical thread that has been served into a thousand pieces.

The Stilfragen is divided into an introduction, which sets out the purpose of the work, and four chapters, each on a theme in the history of artistic style. The first chapter, "The Geometric Style," argues that geometric ornament originated, not from such technical processes as wickerwork and weaving, but rather from an "immanent artistic drive, alert and restless for action, that human beings possessed long before they invented woven protective coverings for their bodies.

This ornament, he argued, developed from attempts to represent natural forms in two dimensions, which gave rise to the idea of an outline. After this "invention of line," the cave-dwellers proceeded to arrange lines "according to the principles of rhythm and symmetry. The second chapter, "The Heraldic Style," addresses compositions of "paired animals arranged symmetrically to either side of an intervening central element.

Riegl argued instead that heraldic ornament arose before the invention of mechanical weaving-looms, and stemmed from a desire for symmetry. The third chapter, "The Introduction of Vegetal Ornament and the Development of the Ornamental Tendril," traces an unbroken evolution of vegetal ornament from ancient Egyptian through to late Roman art.

Here Riegl argues that motifs such as the lotus flower , although they may originally have been endowed by the Egyptians with symbolic significance, were adopted by other cultures that "no longer understood their hieratic meaning," [9] and thereby became purely decorative. In the most famous section of this chapter, Riegl argued that acanthus ornament was not derived from the acanthus plant , as had been believed since the time of Vitruvius , but was rather a sculptural adaptation of the palmette motif.

It was therefore "a product of pure artistic invention," [10] and not of "a simple compulsion to make direct copies of living organisms. The fourth chapter, "The Arabesque ," continues the development of the previous chapter through late antique and early Byzantine and into Islamic art. The arabesque is understood here as a geometricized version of earlier systems of tendril ornament, thereby establishing a "genetic relationship between the ornamental Islamic tendril and its direct predecessor, the tendril ornament of antiquity.

The final two chapters are therefore presented as a continuous history of vegetal ornament from ancient Egypt through to Ottoman Turkey, in which individual motifs develop according to purely artistic criteria, and not through the intervention of technical or mimetic concerns.

In the introduction it is suggested that this development could be continued to Riegl's own time, and that "ornament experiences the same continuous, coherent development that prevails in the art of all periods. The Stilfragen remains a fundamental work in the history of ornament, and has heavily influenced the work of Paul Jacobsthal and Ernst Gombrich , among others who have addressed the same themes. Within Riegl's work as a whole, the Stilfragen constitutes his earliest general statement of principles, although his "theoretical thinking had not by any means reached maturity.

As Otto Pächt has written:. In the picture that Riegl draws of the development the changes of style are meaningful in a specific way; continuity is not merely carrying on; every stylistic phase creates its own problems which are solved in the succeeding one, only to create new conflicts for which new answers have to be found. Thus the styles change of necessity, or to put it differently:


Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik is a book on the history of ornament by the Austrian art historian Alois Riegl. Diesbezüglich findet sich die neueste Zeitreihe im Vordergrund und dementsprechend sind ältere Zeitreihen teilweise verdeckt.

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