Resource Limits

Central limit theorem

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Pursuant to the Regulation NMS Plan to Address Extraordinary Market Volatility (Plan) (see Section VI(A)(1)), transactions that both (1) do not update the last sale price (except if solely because the transaction was reported late) and (2) are excepted or exempt from the SEC's trade-through rule (Reg NMS Rule ) can be executed outside the. In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) establishes that, in some situations, when independent random variables are added, their properly normalized sum tends toward a normal distribution (informally a "bell curve") even if the original variables themselves are not .

What Your Stocking Level Results Mean

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How to receive this amount in by bank account, such that tax the is evaded? You may take it in cheque or bank transfer mode, as an interest-free loan. In case you take it as a Gift, kindly read this article for more details regarding gifts and tax implications.

I have a GST registered concern through which I am purchasing old gold from general public by giving cash. Advisable to do business in non-cash basis as much as possible. The limit is Rs 2 Lakh and the penalty is levied on the receiver of cash. IT department can ask any question on this that why are you withdraw such huge amount in one FY. I bought 2lakh from my friend in and after one year I returnd it. Is this by the law or not. Is there any pandity for that.

Dear Sir If I am putting daily savings in my savings account and that is going out, then I may have to pay any kind of tax for that? Hey Sreekanth Suppose on my marriage , i received 5 lac in cash through friends and relatives. From the post i got to know that i can show only 2 lac in cash.

How to show the remaining 3 lac and how to deposit them in bank. Dear Bharat, Yes, penalty can be levied. You may use it for your personal living expenses. I am selling the material to xyz company every year. So please let me know whether I shall accept the cash from them thousand per day or shall I stop business with them.

I am confused whether it will penalize me under ST. Real estate people are asking to pay by Check up to the amount which is Govt value and rest by cash. Does it mean Govt failed to consider such scenario? I am a practicing chartered Accountant based in Pune. Dear Sonal, You may kindly try to answer to some of the tricky queries posted here…Thank you!

Sir, I got credit note for scheme and discount received where gst has reversed.. Pls help how I will record the credit notes received in my debit note account in tally erp9. For example if you received Rs; in cash than entire amount is the penalty , not only the differencial amt 1 lac. To purchase flat for Rs 35 lakhs through bank loan. Dear Sreekanth Ji, I have sold my car for 4.

Now how should i go about depositing remaining amount of rs 2. So kindly assist me: Shall I wait sometime to deposit. Please help me out. In anticipation of quick reply.. Hello sir we are traders and we have lots of cash customers who purchase more than 2lacs in one year. For example one buyer buys goods of 20 k to 50k in one month. What to do if his limit cross to 2lacs. Yes sir we also want to do cashless transaction but how we can give goods to unknown customer?

If he pay in cheque and it returns how we can trade. August 27, at 2: On his gst no. And good is send with billty. I am very confused sir Thanks. Dear sir my question is if I make 1.

Sir, if a party buys good worth k in cash per bill in multiple dates, sum of which in a complete fy exceeds k will that attract penalty?

Dear sir i am jyoti i have to deposit amount from month july to aug including my husband salary lakh by neft is there any problem sir can i do payment by different acc through neftpls sir suggest me.

Are you referring to payments and expenditures? If so, the limit is Rs 10, in a single day. Kindly go through this article.. I withdraw rs 3 lacks from hdfc bank by bearer cheque. Than I deposited the amount in savings account of post office by cash. Than I made a termdeposit of 3 lacks in post office.

Is it come under ST? Please clarify if the limit of transaction is same for foreign nationals. Can they pay cash more than in one transaction? Can a credit bill be issued against cash received and whats the limit?

But I am confused with the limits of 3 lacs and ten thousand. They said if I paid by a debit card, they will charge extra. So I paid by cash. Will I have to pay a penalty? I thought if at all there is a penalty, the receiver should pay it and not the one who paid.

Please enlighten me on this. There wont be any penalty if the amount is less than Rs 2 Lakh. Yes, receiver only has to pay penalty if any. I am confuse about them. You may kindly go through this article.. Dear Ramanath, Kindly note that there is no threshold limit or penalty on cash withdrawals made from Banks. Dear Sreekanth My spouse received Cash Rs. Now i want to deposit into bank. Will this attract penalty. If yes, what should i do to avoid this.

Pls also clarify me how much penalty if i deposit Rs. Dear Udai, You may deposit in different accounts with installments less than Rs 2 Lakh. Also, do note suggest you to deposit less than Rs 10 Lakh. Dear CA …It is to be shown provided if it is rs. Can I give a friendly loan of Rs two lakh ten thousand in cash to a friend. What if does not pay back the money in stipulated time Can I claim the amount through civil court as the transaction is illegal. What is Promissory Note?

I went through both the above links. But in my case I have given the loan in cash and also got a promissory note duly filled and signed by him.

Since the amount is more than Rs two lakh, which is illegal according to new amendment. Can he get the benefit of new amendment which restricts any cash transaction in cash above Rs two lakh.

He will say that the transaction was not legal, so I can not get my amount back since the transaction was illegal. My concern is in case my friend does not give back the loan money to me and I claim my money in civil court based on that promissory note which was given by my friend to me at the time of advancement of loan. Can he take the defence that the transaction was illegal so he is not liable to pay the amount.

Income tax can be a different issue. IATA travel agents are using airlines portal for issuance of airtickets of that particular airline.

IATA agents are deposting cash in the bank accounts of such airlines for top up and this credit will be diminishing by the cost of the tickets issued. Thus whenever good number of tickets are to be issued top up of these deposit may cross two lakhs. Does this section will apply if the IATA agent deposit cash in these airline account.

Sir, I have a handloom shop I have a question that if one person or firm bought goods from me in cash on 1st April and just next day he bought another goods 2nd April worth in cash Shall I mention his pan no. Or I can identify him is enough? Quoting of PAN number is not mandatory. But, advisable to do business with non-cash mode options going forward…. Who are the government or income tax department to set tax limits or any other cash restrictions on us.

Is the government working with us, so that we earn profit and pay tax? No and government has no right to tell us what to do with our hard earned money or restrict us. We voted for a good government let us get one.

Dear Sree month, What is the maximum limit to deposit cash in banks and will not attract any penalty under income tax act. Are these for the same transaction or event? How is the remaining amount collected? This case should be ok.

But suggest not to repeat this continuously just to avoid implications of Section ST. I want sold my one of flat , which I given developer ,to develop, now I want to sold 1 flat, can I accept amount by cash. I purchase a motor of rs. I have given a loan on a registered mortgage for Rs. A sum of Rs. Now the party wants to settle balance Rs.

Can I receive the balance 1 lakh by cash and clear the mortgage. If I accept this please let me know whether this will attract penalty under ST? Also, you have a valid documentary evidence of Loan. So, I believe that it should be ok to receive Rs 1 lakh in cash. If possible, you may just try if you can get a Cheque.

Dear Sir, I have received 5 lac by cash from rent of land. Go through cash deposit by 5 transaction of 1 lac OR go through cheque? Dear priya, Accepting cash above Rs 2 Lakh attracts penalty.

Suggest you to accept cheque only. Can a hospital receive Rs Over as cash in a single day, from a single person or multiple relatives of the patient, for advance payment for hospitalization bill? Patient is likely to stay for a week. Can be a tricky issue. Advisable to avoid accepting Cash. But if the total bill is less than Rs 2 Lakh, should be ok.

Does it apply here or excluded, if so why? Thanks a lot for the help. Kindly read this article.. You may kindly consult a Chartered Accountant. Each withdrawal is less than 2 lakhs in a single day. Thanks a lot for your help. Pardon me to ask you again. Are you sure if a partner can withdraw cash amounting to more than 2 lakhs in a year from partnership firm not through banks?

I sold my car for Cash and the amount was close to 8 lakhs , as the person bought the car borrowed same money from someone and he got it for cash.

And i had 7 lakhs loan on that car which i paid off.. So now what can i do…. I never had any info on this new rule. Dear Surya, In case, you get a notice on this deposit, you may have to justify your stand.. Will this subject to Penalty?

What about co-op credite Society. How Member Make Transacation inYear. And Limited of singal Transcation per day and In the F. Situation 1 —————— I sell goods to a Dealer as below in three different Invoices on three different dates. So I sold the goods for Rs, and received the in small payments of Rs.

How the above rule applied in this case? Situation 2 —————— I sell goods to a Dealer as below in three different Invoices on three different dates. I received the cash as — Rs. So closed the first bill. I received cash as as Rs.

So closed the second bill. I sold goods worth Rs. I sell furniture to dealers. These are all different sales. They are all different transactions for us. Sales may be same products or different products. One Bill is one transaction for us and I think its the way normally sales treated. So for your question my answer is NO.

In situation 1, When the first bill and second bill due, third bill arises. So how this is defined by Govt. When three bills are due without any payment, are these three bills treated as a single transaction? Please check this Sir. Many people like me are searching the answer for this. Even Income tax officers not replying to these doubts properly. Or is it simply Rs. I agree with you that there is indeed lot of confusion on this topic.

My suggestion would be to slowly move from Cash based to non-cash based transactions over the next few months. I still not believe will be taken as aggregate in a year. I have heard that these pressures can be on the order of 15, pounds per square foot.

I have a quick story to illustrate the kind of pressure we are talking about. A number of years ago I built a custom home for my brother the lawyer. In order to avoid foundation problems, we were required to over-excavate so that we could put down a uniform layer of fill. Marion was game to try removing the rock and he went at it with tremendous zeal. Unfortunately, he might as well have been trying to move the Rock of Gibraltar.

This was not Indiana limestone- it was California blue granite. The next morning the massive granite rocks lay split wide open. The main ingredient in the magic powder was a silicate with oxides of calcium, silicone and aluminum- in other words expansive clay!

Potentially expansive soils which can cause foundation problems are identified by soils engineers by measuring the percentage of fine particles in a particular sample. Clay particles are generally considered to be smaller than silt particles but the true distinction between the two has more to do with origin and shape.

Silt particles are products of mechanical erosion and could actually be viewed as very small sand particles. Clay particles are products of chemical weathering and are characterized by their sheet structure and composition. In order to determine the potential expansion of soils on a particular property, a soils engineer will take representative samples at the jobsite and return them to the lab for testing.

The plasticity index is a measure of the range over which the clay sample will retain its plastic characteristics. As water is added to a sample of solid dry clay, it will cease to behave like a solid or semi-solid and start to behave like a plastic. The percentage of moisture at that point is the plastic limit.

As one continues to add water, at some point the clay will cease to act like a plastic and start to act like a liquid. That point is called the liquid limit. The plastic and liquid limits of a sample are often referred to as the Atterberg limits after the scientist who defined them. The difference between the plastic limit and the liquid limit is a measure of the plasticity of the sample. Clay which has a plasticity index greater than 50 is considered to be highly plastic.

Fat clays are usually highly expansive clays. There are other laboratory tests designed specifically to measure the expansion potential of a particular sample. By adding water to the sample while measuring its deformation, the soils engineer will compare the result to a scale or Expansion Index.

The Expansion Index range and potential expansion is as follows:. The building department may require special engineering and foundation construction methods where expansive soil conditions have been verified. It is important to remember that the soil profile for any particular property may be quite unique.

Soil containing cobble, gravel, and sand may also be expansive depending upon the percentage and type of clay in the sample. Depending upon weathering patterns and other factors, near-surface soils may be highly expansive while soils at depth may be non-expansive. Based upon the soils investigation, the soils engineer should be able to characterize the nature and distribution of expansive soil on a particular project which will aid greatly in the formulation of a cost-effective foundation design.

In order to recognize foundation problems caused by expansive soil, it is necessary to understand the mechanism on the molecular level as I have described it above.

Each expanding clay particle contributes to the behavior of the soil mass. A uniform mass of expansive soil which becomes saturated with moisture will exert pressure in all directions as each individual expanding clay mineral seeks to occupy more space. The direction and magnitude of soil movement will depend upon the magnitude of the confining pressure at any particular point of resistance. Soil movement will be minimized where confining pressures are the largest while movement will be greatest where the magnitude of the confining pressure is the smallest.

As depth increases, the weight of the overburden soil creates increasing confining pressure. Therefore, for any particular uniform mass of expanding soil, the expansion resistance is generally greater at depth than it is near the surface. On level ground, the magnitude of expanding soil movement will be greatest near the surface and in the upward direction. Buildings and other structures which have been constructed on top of a mass of expansive soil create confining pressure which tends to mitigate soil movement.

The magnitude of the confining pressure from a building or structure is determined by the load distribution together with other expansion-resisting design elements. In conventional slab-on-grade construction, the continuous concrete perimeter and interior load-bearing footings are founded at greater depth and are more heavily loaded than the concrete floor slab itself.

Therefore, expansive soil acting uniformly on a slab-on-grade building will generally encounter more resistance from the continuous footings and less resistance from the slab itself.

Assuming that moisture is uniformly adsorbed by a mass of expansive soil, the magnitude of any resulting heave will be greater for the lightly loaded slab than for the more heavily loaded perimeter footing. I have seen it over and over again on California homes constructed on expansive soils. Whenever I see the hump pattern on a manometer plot, and after I have considered all other possible explanations, I am usually quite confident that I am seeing evidence of expansive soils acting on the structure.

Humping of a slab which has been caused by expansive soil is often accompanied by multiple cracks which may radiate from the center of the hump. Cracks in walls and ceilings will also be consistent with differential heave. Another very common sign of expansive soil heave is cracking and lifting of the floor slab of a two-car garage.

The high point of the garage slab will usually be near the mid-point of the garage door opening. Severe humping at this location will often prevent the garage door from closing properly. This common phenomenon is a perfect illustration of how the location and magnitude of soil expansion will be greatest where the confining pressure is the least. Differential heave of expansive soil is also a common occurrence for pier and beam foundations.

The differences in loading are often between interior isolated piers and continuous footings which usually carry heavier loads. As with the slab-on-grade foundation, uniform wetting of foundation soils can result in a mounding pattern where interior floors have heaved more than the building perimeter.

In evaluating damage which may have been caused by expansive soil, one must always consider patterns of wetting and drying of the soil. Soil moisture changes may be due to a rise and fall in the ground water table with the seasons. Soil moisture changes may also be due to periods of unusual rain, changes in humidity or unusual drought. These kinds of changes would be most likely to produce more uniform soil moisture conditions and patterns of foundation movement.

There are also moisture conditions which are caused by other factors such as plumbing leaks, site drainage, and irrigation practices. These conditions can cause differences in the volume of moisture which is being adsorbed by the expansive clay crystals, influencing the behavior of expansive soil and bringing about a variety of foundation movement patterns.

For example, if there is a slow drip or leak in the plumbing system, foundation heave surrounding the leak may be more pronounced. This will show up on the manometer plot as an anomaly which can lead to the location and repair of the leak.

The arguments is a single string containing a list of floating point numbers separated by commas or spaces. The number of and meaning of the floating point values depends on the distortion method being used. Many of the above distortion methods such as ' Affine ', ' Perspective ', and ' Shepards ' use a list control points defining how these points in the given image should be distorted in the destination image.

Each set of four floating point values represent a source image coordinate, followed immediately by the destination image coordinate. This produces a list of values such as For example, to warp an image using ' perspective ' distortion, needs a list of at least 4 sets of coordinates, or 16 numbers. Here is the perspective distortion of the built-in "rose: Note how spaces were used to group the 4 sets of coordinate pairs, to make it easier to read and understand.

If more that the required number of coordinate pairs are given for a distortion, the distortion method is 'least squares' fitted to produce the best result for all the coordinate pairs given. If less than the ideal number of points are given, the distort will generally fall back to a simpler form of distortion that can handles the smaller number of coordinates usually a linear ' Affine ' distortion. By using more coordinates you can make use of image registration tool to find matching coordinate pairs in overlapping images, so as to improve the 'fit' of the distortion.

Of course a bad coordinate pair can also make the 'fit' worse. Caution is always advised. Colors are acquired from the source image according to a cylindrical resampling -filter , using a special technique known as EWA resampling.

This produces very high quality results, especially when images become smaller minified in the output, which is very common when using ' perspective ' distortion.

For example here we view a infinitely tiled 'plane' all the way to the horizon. Note that a infinitely tiled perspective images involving the horizon can be very slow, because of the number of pixels that are compressed to generate each individual pixel close to the 'horizon'.

You can turn off EWA resampling, by specifying the special -filter setting of ' point ' recommended if you plan to use super-sampling instead.

If an image generates invalid pixels , such as the 'sky' in the last example, -distort will use the current -mattecolor setting for these pixels. If you do not what these pixels to be visible, set the color to match the rest of the ground. The output image size will by default be the same as the input image. This means that if the part of the distorted image falls outside the viewed area of the 'distorted space', those parts is clipped and lost.

Setting -verbose setting, will cause -distort to attempt to output the internal coefficients, and the -fx equivalent to the distortion, for expert study, and debugging purposes. This many not be available for all distorts. You can alternatively specify a special " -define distort: Setting a " -define distort: This can be used either for 'super-sampling' the image for a higher quality result, or for panning and zooming around the image with appropriate viewport changes, or post-distort cropping and resizing.

Setting " -define resample: Note this table uses a squared radius lookup value. This is typically only used for debugging EWA resampling. Apply a Riemersma or Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion dither to images when general color reduction is applied via an option, or automagically when saving to specific formats.

This enabled by default. Dithering places two or more colors in neighboring pixels so that to the eye a closer approximation of the images original color is reproduced. This reduces the number of colors needed to reproduce the image but at the cost of a lower level pattern of colors. Error diffusion dithers can use any set of colors generated or user defined to an image.

This will also also render PostScript without text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often but not always leads to faster process, a smaller number of colors, but more cartoon like image coloring. Generally resulting in 'color banding' effects in areas with color gradients. The color reduction operators -colors , -monochrome , -remap , and -posterize , apply dithering to images using the reduced color set they created.

These operators are also used as part of automatic color reduction when saving images to formats with limited color support, such as GIF: Alternatively you can use -random-threshold to generate purely random dither. Or use -ordered-dither to apply threshold mapped dither patterns, using uniform color maps, rather than specific color maps. Use " -define dither: Use this option to annotate or decorate an image with one or more graphic primitives.

The primitives include shapes, text, transformations, and pixel operations. The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and does not interact with the other primitives.

It is equivalent to using the -gravity command-line option, except that it is limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears. The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified by the preceding -fill setting. For unfilled shapes, use -fill none. You can optionally control the stroke the "outline" of a shape with the -stroke and -strokewidth settings. A point primitive is specified by a single point in the pixel plane, that is, by an ordered pair of integer coordinates, x , y.

As it involves only a single pixel, a point primitive is not affected by -stroke or -strokewidth. A rectangle primitive is specified by the pair of points at the upper left and lower right corners. A roundRectangle primitive takes the same corner points as a rectangle followed by the width and height of the rounded corners to be removed. The circle primitive makes a disk filled or circle unfilled. Give the center and any point on the perimeter boundary.

The arc primitive is used to inscribe an elliptical segment in to a given rectangle. An arc requires the two corners used for rectangle see above followed by the start and end angles of the arc of the segment segment e.

The start and end points produced are then joined with a line segment and the resulting segment of an ellipse is filled. Use ellipse to draw a partial or whole ellipse. Give the center point, the horizontal and vertical "radii" the semi-axes of the ellipse and start and end angles in degrees e. The polyline and polygon primitives require three or more points to define their perimeters.

A polyline is simply a polygon in which the final point is not stroked to the start point. When unfilled, this is a polygonal line. If the -stroke setting is none the default , then a polyline is identical to a polygon. The Bezier primitive creates a spline curve and requires three or points to define its shape. The first and last points are the knots and these points are attained by the curve, while any intermediate coordinates are control points.

If two control points are specified, the line between each end knot and its sequentially respective control point determines the tangent direction of the curve at that end. If one control point is specified, the lines from the end knots to the one control point determines the tangent directions of the curve at each end. If more than two control points are specified, then the additional control points act in combination to determine the intermediate shape of the curve.

In order to draw complex curves, it is highly recommended either to use the path primitive or to draw multiple four-point bezier segments with the start and end knots of each successive segment repeated. A path represents an outline of an object, defined in terms of moveto set a new current point , lineto draw a straight line , curveto draw a Bezier curve , arc elliptical or circular arc and closepath close the current shape by drawing a line to the last moveto elements.

Use image to composite an image with another image. Follow the image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image size, and filename:. You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it is scaled to the given dimensions. See Alpha Compositing for a detailed discussion of alpha composition methods that are available.

The "special augmented compose operators" such as "dissolve" that require arguments cannot be used at present with the -draw image option. Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it in single or double quotes. For example, the following annotates the image with Works like magick!

See the -annotate option for another convenient way to annotate an image with text. The rotate primitive rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about the origin of the main image. The skewX and skewY primitives skew them with respect to the origin of the main image or the region. The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is initialized from the initial affine matrix defined by the -affine option.

Transformations are cumulative within the -draw option. The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix is only changed by the appearance of another -affine option. If another -draw option appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized from the initial affine matrix.

Use the color primitive to change the color of a pixel to the fill color see -fill. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method:.

Consider the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate. The point method recolors the target pixel. The replace method recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the border color.

Finally, reset recolors all pixels. Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method see the color primitive for a description of methods. The point method changes the matte value of the target pixel.

The replace method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color -bordercolor. Finally reset changes the matte value of all pixels. You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box color with -fill , -font , and -box respectively.

Options are processed in command line order so be sure to use these options before the -draw option. Drawing primitives conform to the Magick Vector Graphics format. Specify the count and the image to duplicate by its index in the sequence. Encipher pixels for later deciphering by -decipher. For example using HSL, we have: For example, OHTA is a principal components transformation that puts most of the information in the first channel.

Alter channel pixels by evaluating an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression. See the -function operator for some multi-parameter functions.

See the -fx operator if more elaborate calculations are needed. The behaviors of each operator are summarized in the following list. For brevity, the numerical value of a "pixel" referred to below is the value of the corresponding channel of that pixel, while a "normalized pixel" is that number divided by the maximum installation-dependent value QuantumRange. If normalized pixels are used, they are restored, following the other calculations, to the full range by multiplying by QuantumRange.

The specified functions are applied only to each previously set -channel in the image. If necessary, the results of the calculations are truncated clipped to fit in the interval [0, QuantumRange ]. To print a complete list of -evaluate operators, use -list evaluate.

AddModulus has been added as of ImageMagick 6. It is therefore equivalent to Add unless the resulting pixel value is outside the interval [0, QuantumRange ].

Exp or Exponential has been added as of ImageMagick 6. The value used with Exp should be negative so as to produce a decaying exponential function. Non-negative values will always produce results larger unity and thus outside the interval [0, QuantumRange ].

The formula is expressed below. If the input image is squared, for example, using -function polynomial "2 0 0" , then a decaying Gaussian function will be the result. Log has been added as of ImageMagick 6. This a scaled log function. The value used with Log provides a scaling factor that adjusts the curvature in the graph of the log function.

The formula applied to a normalized value u is below. Pow has been added as of ImageMagick 6. Note that Pow is related to the -gamma operator. For example, -gamma 2 is equivalent to -evaluate pow 0. The value used with -gamma is simply the reciprocal of the value used with Pow.

Cosine and Sine was added as of IM v6. The synonyms Cos and Sin may also be used. The value scaling of the period of the function its frequency , and thus determines the number of 'waves' that will be generated over the input color range.

For example, if the value is 1, the effective period is simply the QuantumRange ; but if the value is 2, then the effective period is the half the QuantumRange. See also the -function operator, which is a multi-value version of evaluate. Alter channel pixels by evaluating an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression over a sequence of images.

Ensure all the images in the sequence are in the same colorspace, otherwise you may get unexpected results, e. To print a complete list of -evaluate-sequence operators, use -list evaluate. If the image is enlarged, unfilled areas are set to the background color. To position the image, use offsets in the geometry specification or precede with a -gravity setting. To specify how to compose the image with the background, use -compose.

This command reduces or expands a JPEG image to fit on an x display. If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly 4: This option is most useful for extracting a subregion of a very large raw image.

Note that these two commands are equivalent:. This setting suggests a font family that ImageMagick should try to use for rendering text. If the family can be found it is used; if not, a default font e. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -font , -stretch , -style , and -weight. This option is new as of ImageMagick 6. It transforms an image from the normal spatial domain to the frequency domain.

In the frequency domain, an image is represented as a superposition of complex sinusoidal waves of varying amplitudes. The image x and y coordinates are the possible frequencies along the x and y directions, respectively, and the pixel intensity values are complex numbers that correspond to the sinusoidal wave amplitudes. A single image name is provided as output for this option. However, the output result will have two components.

It is either a two-frame image or two separate images, depending upon whether the image format specified supports multi-frame images. The reason that we get a dual output result is because the frequency domain represents an image using complex numbers, which cannot be visualized directly. Therefore, the complex values are automagically separated into a two-component image representation. The first component is the magnitude of the complex number and the second is the phase of the complex number.

See for example, Complex Numbers. The magnitude and phase component images must be specified using image formats that do not limit the color or compress the image.

All of these formats, except PNG support multi-frame images. The input image can be any size, but if not square and even-dimensioned, it is padded automagically to the larger of the width or height of the input image and to an even number of pixels. The resulting output magnitude and phase images is square at this size.

The kind of padding relies on the -virtual-pixel setting. The magnitude image is not scaled and thus generally will contain very small values. As such, the image normally will appear totally black. In order to view any detail, the magnitude image typically is enhanced with a log function into what is usually called the spectrum. A log function is used to enhance the darker values more in comparison to the lighter values. This can be done, for example, as follows:.

The argument to the -evaluate log typically is specified between and 10,, depending upon the amount of detail that one wants to bring out in the spectrum. Larger values produce more visible detail. Too much detail, however, may hide the important features. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -fft. However, as the real and imaginary components can contain negative values, this requires that IM be configured with HDRI enabled. In this case, you must use either MIFF, TIF, PFM or MPC formats for the real and imaginary component results, since they are formats that preserve both negative and fractional values without clipping them or truncating the fractional part.

Use " -define fourier: See Color Names for a description of how to properly specify the color argument. Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the " " or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.

Use this type of filter when resizing or distorting an image. Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image during operations such as -resize and -distort. For example you can use a simple resize filter such as:. The Bessel and Sinc filter is also provided as well as a faster SincFast equivalent form. However these filters are generally useless on their own as they are infinite filters that are being clipped to the filters support size.

Their direct use is not recommended except via expert settings see below. Instead these special filter functions are typically windowed by a windowing function that the -filter setting defines. That is using these functions will define a 'Windowed' filter, appropriate to the operator involved. Also one special self-windowing filter is also provided Lagrange , which will automagically re-adjust its function depending on the current 'support' or 'lobes' expert settings see below.

If you do not select a filter with this option, the filter defaults to Mitchell for a colormapped image, an image with a matte channel, or if the image is enlarged. Otherwise the filter default to Lanczos. You can modify how the filter behaves as it scales your image through the use of these expert settings see also -define and -set: To extract the data for a raw windowing function, combine it with a ' Box ' filter.

For example the ' Welch parabolic windowing function. Note that the use of expert options is provided for image processing experts who have studied and understand how resize filters work.

Without this knowledge, and an understanding of the definition of the actual filters involved, using expert settings are more likely to be detrimental to your image resizing. This is a simple alias for the -layers method "flatten". Flood fill starts from the given 'seed point' which is not gravity affected. Any color that matches within -fuzz color distance of the given color argument, connected to that 'seed point' will be replaced with the current -fill color.

Note that if the pixel at the 'seed point' does not itself match the given color according to -fuzz , then no action will be taken. This operator works more like the -opaque option, than a more general flood fill that reads the matching color directly at the 'seed point'. For this form of flood fill, look at -draw and its 'color floodfill' drawing method.

To print a complete list of fonts, use the -list font option for versions prior to 6. In addition to the fonts specified by the above pre-defined list, you can also specify a font from a specific source. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -family , -stretch , -style , and -weight. When used with the mogrify utility, this option converts any image to the image format you specify. For a list of image format types supported by ImageMagick, use -list format.

By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image format type specified with -format.

For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input image filename is image. See Format and Print Image Properties for an explanation on how to specify the argument to this option. The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option.

The size portion of the geometry argument indicates the amount of extra width and height that is added to the dimensions of the image.

If no offsets are given in the geometry argument, then the border added is a solid color. Offsets x and y , if present, specify that the width and height of the border is partitioned to form an outer bevel of thickness x pixels and an inner bevel of thickness y pixels.

Negative offsets make no sense as frame arguments. The -frame option is affected by the current -compose setting and assumes that this is using the default ' Over ' composition method. It generates an image of the appropriate size with the current -bordercolor setting, and then draws the frame of four distinct colors close to the current -mattecolor. The original image is then overlaid onto center of this image.

This operator performs calculations based on the given arguments to modify each of the color values for each previously set -channel in the image. See -evaluate for details concerning how the results of the calculations are handled. This is can be considered a multi-argument version of the -evaluate operator. Added in ImageMagick 6. Here, parameters is a comma-separated list of numerical values. The number of values varies depending on which function is selected.

Choose the function from:. To print a complete list of -function operators, use -list function. The Polynomial function takes an arbitrary number of parameters, these being the coefficients of a polynomial, in decreasing order of degree. The Polynomial function can be used in place of Set the constant polynomial and Add , Divide , Multiply , and Subtract some linear polynomials of the -evaluate operator. The -level operator also affects channels linearly.

The Polynomial function gives great versatility, since polynomials can be used to fit any continuous curve to any degree of accuracy desired. The Sinusoid function can be used to vary the channel values sinusoidally by setting frequency, phase shift, amplitude, and a bias.

These values are given as one to four parameters, as follows,. The result is that if a pixel's normalized channel value is originally u , its resulting normalized value is given by.

For example, the following generates a curve that starts and ends at 0. The default values of amp and bias are both. The default for phase is 0. The Sinusoid function generalizes Sin and Cos of the -evaluate operator by allowing varying amplitude, phase and bias. The correspondence is as follows. The ArcSin function generates the inverse curve of a Sinusoid, and can be used to generate cylindrical distortion and displacement maps. The curve can be adjusted relative to both the input values and output range of values.

Defaulting to values covering the full range from 0. The ArcTan function generates a curve that smooth crosses from limit values at infinities, though a center using the given slope value.

All these values can be adjusted via the arguments. A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close to the target color in RGB space. For example, if you want to automagically trim the edges of an image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target background color may differ by a small amount.

This option can account for these differences. If the first character of expression is , the expression is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values extend from 0. Gamma less than 1. Large adjustments to image gamma may result in the loss of some image information if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits quantum range 0 to This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute e.

Write the "file gamma" which is the reciprocal of the display gamma; e. The larger the Radius the radius the slower the operation is. This differs from the faster -blur operator in that a full 2-dimensional convolution is used to generate the weighted average of the neighboring pixels.

Sets the current gravity suggestion for various other settings and options. Use -list gravity to get a complete list of -gravity settings available in your ImageMagick installation. The direction you choose specifies where to position text or subimages.

For example, a gravity of Center forces the text to be centered within the image. By default, the image gravity is undefined. See -draw for more details about graphic primitives. Only the text primitive of -draw is affected by the -gravity option. The -gravity option is also used in concert with the -geometry setting and other settings or options that take geometry as an argument, such as the -crop option.

If a -gravity setting occurs before another option or setting having a geometry argument that specifies an offset, the offset is usually applied to the point within the image suggested by the -gravity argument. Thus, in the following command, for example, suppose the file image.

The argument to -gravity is Center , which suggests the midpoint of the image, at the point , In addition, the -gravity affects the region itself, which is centered at the pixel coordinate 60, When used as an option to composite , -gravity gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite. When used as an option to montage , -gravity gives the direction that an image gravitates within a tile. The default gravity is Center for this purpose. This will use one of the -intensity methods to convert the given image into a grayscale image.

Note that a 'colorspace' intensity method will produce the same result regardless of the current colorpsace of the image. But a 'mathematical' intensity method depends on the current colorspace the image is currently using. While this operation uses an -intensity method, it does not use or set the -intensity setting, so will not affect other operations that may use that setting.

A Hald color lookup table is a 3-dimensional color cube mapped to 2 dimensions. Create it with the HALD: You can apply any color transformation to the Hald image and then use this option to apply the transform to the image. This option provides a convenient method for you to use Gimp or Photoshop to make color corrections to the Hald CLUT image and subsequently apply them to multiple images using an ImageMagick script. Note that the representation is only of the normal RGB color space and that the whole color value triplet is used for the interpolated lookup of the represented Hald color cube image.

See also -clut which provides color value replacement of the individual color channels, usually involving a simpler grayscale image. Use the Hough line detector with any binary edge extracted image to locate and draw any straight lines that it finds. The process accumulates counts for every white pixel in the binary edge image for every possible orientation for angles from 0 to in 1 deg increments and distance from the center of the image to the corners in 1 px increments.

It stores the counts in an accumulator matrix of angle vs distance. Next it searches the accumulator for peaks in counts and converts the locations of the peaks to slope and intercept in the normal x,y input image space. The lines are drawn from the given endpoints. The counts are a measure of the length of the lines. The WxH arguments specify the filter size for locating the peaks in the Hough accumulator.

The threshold excludes lines whose counts are less than the threshold value. Use -background to specify the color of the background onto which the lines will be drawn. The default is black. Use -fill to specify the color of the lines. Use -stroke and -strokewidth to specify the thickness of the lines. The default is black and no strokewidth.

A text file listing the endpoints and counts may be created by using the suffix,. Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets. This information is printed: Refer to MIFF for a description of the image class. If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduction error values are printed.

Refer to color reduction algorithm for a description of these values. If -verbose precedes this option, copious amounts of image properties are displayed including image statistics, profiles, image histogram, and others.

It transforms a pair of magnitude and phase images from the frequency domain to a single image in the normal or spatial domain. For example, depending upon the image format used to store the result of the -fft , one would use either. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -ift. This option takes last image in the current image sequence and inserts it at the given index.

If a negative index is used, the insert position is calculated before the last image is removed from the sequence. As such -insert -1 will result in no change to the image sequence. In other words, insert the last image, at the end of the current image sequence.

Consequently this has no effect on the image sequence order. ImageMagick provides a number of methods used in situations where an operator needs to determine a single grayscale value for some purpose, from an image with red, green, and blue pixel components.

Typically the RecLuma formula is used, which is the same formula used when converting images to -colorspace gray. The following formulas are currently provided, and will first convert the pixel values to linear-RGB or non-linear sRGB colorspace before being applied to calculate the final greyscale value. These intensity methods are mathematical in nature and will use the current value in the images respective R,G,B channel regardless of what that is, or what colorspace the image is currently using.

These methods are often used for other purposes, such as generating a grayscale difference image between two color images using -compose ' Difference ' composition. The method 'RMS' Root Mean Squared for example is appropriate for calculating color vector distance, from a color difference image.

This is equivalent to the color only component of the -fuzz factor color compare setting. See also -grayscale which applies one of the above grayscaling formula directly to an image without setting the -intensity setting. The -colorspace gray image conversion also uses the current intensity setting, but will always convert the image to the appropriate sRGB or linear-RGB colorspace before appling the above function.

To print a complete list of possible pixel intensity setting methods, use -list intensity. Use this option to affect the color management operation of an image see -profile. Choose from these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation. Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files e.

Set the pixel color interpolation method to use when looking up a color based on a floating point or real value. When looking up the color of a pixel using a non-integer floating point value, you typically fall in between the pixel colors defined by the source image. This setting determines how the color is determined from the colors of the pixels surrounding that point.

That is how to determine the color of a point that falls between two, or even four different colored pixels. This most important for distortion operators such as -distort , -implode , -transform and -fx. See also -virtual-pixel , for control of the lookup for positions outside the boundaries of the image.

Physical Memory Limits: Windows 10

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This will create a 3-D effect. Subsequent requests for creation of additional filters are rejected and an exception is received by the calling code.

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